Diabetes is not an easy disease and a nursing care plan for diabetes mellitus thats effective can turn out to be extremely beneficial for the patient.
A metabolic disease, diabetes is basically characterized by irregular protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Elevation of blood sugar levels is the primary feature of this particular disorder and this can either be due to a change in insulin action or a defect in insulin production within the pancreas and even both in some cases.
It is regarded as a very dangerous disease because it can lead to serious complications in various organ systems such as the blood vessels, kidneys, eyes and nerves.
Nursing care plans are designed for diagnostic intervention and aid people in dealing with the disease in the long term. There are numerous effective plans that diabetic patients can find, but not all of them work for every patient. Here is one nursing plan thats commonly used:
Fluid Volume Deficit
When there is excessive glucose in the blood, it is excreted by the kidneys through the urine for achieving normal levels. This extra glucose plays the role of osmotic diuretic in the urine tract, which means that an increased quantity of water is excreted. This results in polyuria or fluid volume deficit.
Goal: The primary goal of this nursing care plan is to help the patients in achieving adequate hydration. There are numerous ways through which this is evidenced, which includes electrolyte levels with regular limits, skin turgor, appropriate output of urine, palpable peripheral pulse, stability in vital signs and capillary refill well.
Intervention: The first step thats taken by the nurses is monitoring of the vital signs because tachycardia and hypotension can also be manifested by hypovolemia. Assessment of mucous membranes and dry skins is also essential along with peripheral pulses. This can be used for checking the adequate circulating volume or even the level of dehydration. The plan also indicates that the specific gravity and the input and output of urine should be recorded as its beneficial in determining the effects of the therapy, renal function and fluid replacement.
Weight measuring is also part of the plan as this can provide the best assessment of not just the ongoing fluid, but also the future replacement fluid that will be needed. Finally, it is time to provide the fluid therapy, which varies for every diabetic patient as the amount and type of lack of fluids is different.